Managing a MySQL Cluster involves a number of tasks, the first of which is to configure and start MySQL Cluster. This is covered in Section 15.4, “MySQL Cluster Configuration”, and Section 15.6, “Process Management in MySQL Cluster”.
The following sections cover the management of a running MySQL Cluster.
There are essentially two methods of actively managing a running
MySQL Cluster. The first of these is through the use of commands
entered into the management client whereby cluster status can be
checked, log levels changed, backups started and stopped, and
nodes stopped and started. The second method involves studying the
contents of the cluster log
in the management server's
node_id represents the
unique identifier of the node whose activity is being logged.) The
cluster log contains event reports generated by
ndbd. It is also possible to send cluster log
entries to a Unix system log.
This section describes the steps involved when the cluster is started.
There are several different startup types and modes, as shown here:
Initial Start: The cluster starts with a clean filesystem on all data nodes. This occurs either when the cluster started for the very first time, or when it is restarted using the
System Restart: The cluster starts and reads data stored in the data nodes. This occurs when the cluster has been shut down after having been in use, when it is desired for the cluster to resume operations from the point where it left off.
Node Restart: This is the online restart of a cluster node while the cluster itself is running.
Initial Node Restart: This is the same as a node restart, except that the node is reinitialized and started with a clean filesystem.
Prior to startup, each data node (
process) must be initialized. Initialization consists of the
Obtain a Node ID.
Fetch configuration data.
Allocate ports to be used for inter-node communications.
Allocate memory according to settings obtained from the configuration file.
When a data node or SQL node first connects to the management node, it reserves a cluster node ID. To make sure that no other node allocates the same node ID, this ID is retained until the node has managed to connect to the cluster and at least one ndbd reports that this node is connected. This retention of the node ID is guarded by the connection between the node in question and ndb_mgmd.
Normally, in the event of a problem with the node, the node disconnects from the management server, the socket used for the connection is closed, and the reserved node ID is freed. However, if a node is disconnected abruptly — for example, due to a hardware failure in one of the cluster hosts, or because of network issues — the normal closing of the socket by the operating system may not take place. In this case, the node ID continues to be reserved and not released until a TCP timeout occurs 10 or so minutes later.
To take care of this problem, you can use
SESSIONS. Running this statement forces all reserved
node IDs to be checked; any that are not being used by nodes
actually connected to the cluster are then freed.
Beginning with MySQL 5.0.22, timeout handling of node ID
assignments is implemented. This performs the ID usage checks
automatically after approximately 20 seconds, so that
PURGE STALE SESSIONS should no longer be
necessary in a normal Cluster start.
After each data node has been initialized, the cluster startup process can proceed. The stages which the cluster goes through during this process are listed here:
Clear the cluster filesystem. This stage occurs only if the cluster was started with the
This stage sets up Cluster connections, establishes inter-node communications are established, and starts Cluster heartbeats.
The arbitrator node is elected. If this is a system restart, the cluster determines the latest restorable global checkpoint.
This stage initializes a number of internal cluster variables.
For an initial start or initial node restart, the redo log files are created. The number of these files is equal to
For a system restart:
Read schema or schemas.
Read data from the local checkpoint and undo logs.
Apply all redo information until the latest restorable global checkpoint has been reached.
For a node restart, find the tail of the redo log.
If this is an initial start, create the
NDB$EVENTSinternal system tables.
For a node restart or an initial node restart:
The node is included in transaction handling operations.
The node schema is compared with that of the master and synchronized with it.
Synchronize data received in the form of
INSERTfrom the other data nodes in this node's node group.
In all cases, wait for complete local checkpoint as determined by the arbitrator.
Update internal variables.
Update internal variables.
In a system restart, rebuild all indexes.
Update internal variables.
At this point in a node restart or initial node restart, APIs may connect to the node and being to receive events.
At this point in a node restart or initial node restart, event delivery is handed over to the node joining the cluster. The newly-joined node takes over responsibility for delivering its primary data to subscribers.
After this process is completed for an initial start or system restart, transaction handling is enabled. For a node restart or initial node restart, completion of the startup process means that the node may now act as a transaction coordinator.
In addition to the central configuration file, a cluster may also be controlled through a command-line interface available through the management client ndb_mgm. This is the primary administrative interface to a running cluster.
Commands for the event logs are given in Section 15.7.3, “Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster”; commands for creating backups and restoring from backup are provided in Section 15.8, “On-line Backup of MySQL Cluster”.
The management client has the following basic commands. In the
listing that follows,
either a database node ID or the keyword
which indicates that the command should be applied to all of the
cluster's data nodes.
Displays information on all available commands.
Displays information on the cluster's status.
Note: In a cluster where multiple management nodes are in use, this command displays information only for data nodes that are actually connected to the current management server.
Starts the data node identified by
node_id(or all data nodes).
Beginning with MySQL 5.0.19, this command can also be used to start individual management nodes. Note:
ALL STARTcontinues to affect data nodes only.
Stops the data node identified by
node_id(or all data nodes).
Beginning with MySQL 5.0.19, this command can also be used to stop individual management nodes. Note:
ALL STOPcontinues to affect data nodes only.
node_idRESTART [-N] [-I]
Restarts the data node identified by
node_id(or all data nodes).
Displays status information for the data node identified by
node_id(or for all data nodes).
ENTER SINGLE USER MODE
Enters single-user mode, whereby only the MySQL server identified by the node ID
node_idis allowed to access the database.
EXIT SINGLE USER MODE
Exits single-user mode, allowing all SQL nodes (that is, all running mysqld processes) to access the database.
Terminates the management client.
Shuts down all cluster nodes, except for SQL nodes, and exits.
In this section, we discuss the types of event logs provided by MySQL Cluster, and the types of events that are logged.
MySQL Cluster provides two types of event log. These are the cluster log, which includes events generated by all cluster nodes, and the node logs, which are local to each data node.
Output generated by cluster event logging can have multiple
destinations including a file, the management server console
syslog. Output generated by node
event logging is written to the data node's console window.
Both types of event logs can be set to log different subsets of events.
Note: The cluster log is the log recommended for most uses because it provides logging information for an entire cluster in a single file. Node logs are intended to be used only during application development, or for debugging application code.
Each reportable event can be distinguished according to three different criteria:
Category: This can be any one of the following values:
Priority: This is represented by one of the numbers from 1 to 15 inclusive, where 1 indicates “most important” and 15 “least important.”
Severity Level: This can be any one of the following values:
Both the cluster log and the node log can be filtered on these properties.
The following management commands are related to the cluster log:
Turns the cluster log on.
Turns the cluster log off.
Provides information about cluster log settings.
categoryevents with priority less than or equal to
thresholdin the cluster log.
Toggles cluster logging of events of the specified
The following table describes the default setting (for all data nodes) of the cluster log category threshold. If an event has a priority with a value lower than or equal to the priority threshold, it is reported in the cluster log.
Note that events are reported per data node, and that the threshold can be set to different values on different nodes.
|Category||Default threshold (All data nodes)|
Thresholds are used to filter events within each category. For
STARTUP event with a priority of
3 is not logged unless the threshold for
STARTUP is changed to 3 or lower. Only
events with priority 3 or lower are sent if the threshold is
The following table shows the event severity levels.
(Note: These correspond to
syslog levels, except for
LOG_NOTICE, which are not used or mapped.)
||A condition that should be corrected immediately, such as a corrupted system database|
||Critical conditions, such as device errors or insufficient resources|
||Conditions that should be corrected, such as configuration errors|
||Conditions that are not errors, but that might require special handling|
||Debugging messages used for
Event severity levels can be turned on or off (using
CLUSTERLOG FILTER — see above). If a
severity level is turned on, then all events with a priority
less than or equal to the category thresholds are logged. If
the severity level is turned off then no events belonging to
that severity level are logged.
An event report reported in the event logs has the following format:
09:19:30 2005-07-24 [NDB] INFO -- Node 4 Start phase 4 completed
This section discusses all reportable events, ordered by category and severity level within each category.
In the event descriptions, GCP and LCP mean “Global Checkpoint” and “Local Checkpoint,” respectively.
These events are associated with connections between Cluster nodes.
|data nodes connected||8||
||Data nodes connected|
|data nodes disconnected||8||
||Data nodes disconnected|
||SQL node or data node connection closed|
||SQL node or data node connection opened|
The logging messages shown here are associated with checkpoints.
|LCP stopped in calc keep GCI||0||
|Local checkpoint fragment completed||11||
||LCP on a fragment has been completed|
|Global checkpoint completed||10||
|Global checkpoint started||9||
||Start of GCP: REDO log is written to disk|
|Local checkpoint completed||8||
||LCP completed normally|
|Local checkpoint started||7||
||Start of LCP: data written to disk|
|Report undo log blocked||7||
||UNDO logging blocked; buffer near overflow|
The following events are generated in response to the startup of a node or of the cluster and of its success or failure. They also provide information relating to the progress of the startup process, including information concerning logging activities.
|Internal start signal received STTORRY||15||
||Blocks received after completion of restart|
|Undo records executed||15||
|New REDO log started||10||
|New log started||10||
|Node has been refused for inclusion in the cluster||8||
||Node cannot be included in cluster due to misconfiguration, inability to establish communication, or other problem|
|data node neighbors||8||
||Shows neighboring data nodes|
|data node start phase
||A data node start phase has been completed|
|Node has been successfully included into the cluster||3||
||Displays the node, managing node, and dynamic ID|
|data node start phases initiated||1||
||NDB Cluster nodes starting|
|data node all start phases completed||1||
||NDB Cluster nodes started|
|data node shutdown initiated||1||
||Shutdown of data node has commenced|
|data node shutdown aborted||1||
||Unable to shut down data node normally|
The following events are generated when restarting a node and relate to the success or failure of the node restart process.
|Node failure phase completed||8||
||Reports completion of node failure phases|
|Node has failed, node state was
||Reports that a node has failed|
|Report arbitrator results||2||
||There are eight different possible results for arbitration attempts:
|Completed copying a fragment||10||
|Completed copying of dictionary information||8||
|Completed copying distribution information||8||
|Starting to copy fragments||8||
|Completed copying all fragments||8||
|GCP takeover started||7||
|GCP takeover completed||7||
|LCP takeover started||7||
|LCP takeover completed (state =
|Report whether an arbitrator is found or not||6||
||There are seven different possible outcomes when seeking an arbitrator:
The following events are of a statistical nature. They provide information such as numbers of transactions and other operations, amount of data sent or received by individual nodes, and memory usage.
|Report job scheduling statistics||9||
||Mean internal job scheduling statistics|
|Sent number of bytes||9||
||Mean number of bytes sent to node
|Received # of bytes||9||
||Mean number of bytes received from node
|Report transaction statistics||8||
||Numbers of: transactions, commits, reads, simple reads, writes, concurrent operations, attribute information, and aborts|
||Number of operations|
|Report table create||7||
||Data and index memory usage (80%, 90%, and 100%)|
These events relate to Cluster errors and warnings. The presence of one or more of these generally indicates that a major malfunction or failure has occurred.
|Dead due to missed heartbeat||8||
|General warning events||2||
These events provide general information about the state of the cluster and activities associated with Cluster maintenance, such as logging and heartbeat transmission.
||Heartbeat sent to node
|Create log bytes||11||
||Log part, log file, MB|
|General information events||2||
NDB management client's
CLUSTERLOG STATISTICS command can provide a
number of useful statistics in its output. The following
statistics are reported by the transaction coordinator:
|Statistic||Description (Number of...)|
||Transactions attempted with this node as coordinator|
||Transactions committed with this node as coordinator|
||Primary key reads (all)|
||Primary key reads reading the latest committed value|
||Primary key writes (includes all
||Data words used to describe all reads and writes received|
||All concurrent operations ongoing at the moment the report is taken|
||Transactions with this node as coordinator that were aborted|
The ndbd process has a scheduler that runs in an infinite loop. During each loop scheduler performs the following tasks:
Read any incoming messages from sockets into a job buffer.
Check whether there are any timed messages to be executed; if so, put these into the job buffer as well.
Execute (in a loop) any messages in the job buffer.
Send any distributed messages that were generated by executing the messages in the job buffer.
Wait for any new incoming messages.
The number of loops executed in the third step is reported as
Mean Loop Counter. This statistic
increases in size as the utilisation of the TCP/IP buffer
improves. You can use this to monitor performance as you add
new processes to the cluster.
Mean send size and
receive size statistics allow you to gauge the
efficiency of writes and reads (respectively) between nodes.
These values are given in bytes. Higher values mean a lower
cost per byte sent or received; the maximum is 64k.
To generate a report of all cluster log statistics, you can
use the following command in the
ALL CLUSTERLOG STATISTICS=15
Single-user mode allows the database administrator to restrict access to the database system to a single MySQL server (SQL node). When entering single-user mode, all connections to all other MySQL servers are closed gracefully and all running transactions are aborted. No new transactions are allowed to be started.
Once the cluster has entered single-user mode, only the designated SQL node is granted access to the database.
You can use the ALL STATUS command to see when the cluster has entered single-user mode.
ENTER SINGLE USER MODE 5
After this command has executed and the cluster has entered
single-user mode, the SQL node whose node ID is
5 becomes the cluster's only permitted user.
The node specified in the preceding command must be a MySQL Server node; An attempt to specify any other type of node will be rejected.
Note: When the preceding commmand is invoked, all transactions running on the designated node are aborted, the connection is closed, and the server must be restarted.
The command EXIT SINGLE USER MODE changes the state of the cluster's data nodes from single-user mode to normal mode. MySQL Servers waiting for a connection (that is, for the cluster to become ready and available), are again permitted to connect. The MySQL Server denoted as the single-user SQL node continues to run (if still connected) during and after the state change.
EXIT SINGLE USER MODE
There are two recommended ways to handle a node failure when running in single-user mode:
Finish all single-user mode transactions
Issue the EXIT SINGLE USER MODE command
Restart the cluster's data nodes
Restart database nodes prior to entering single-user mode.